Key to Mochokidae Genera

1a. Lips and barbels modified into a sucker; postcleithral process short; 5 infraorbitals; pelvic-fin origin at vertical at end of dorsal-fin base...2
1b. Lips and barbels not modified into a sucker; postcleithral process quite long; 4 infraorbitals; pelvic-fin origin beyond end of dorsal-fin base...5

2a. Mandibular teeth bunched at midline in or spread across mouth opening in one or two discrete rows; eyes without free orbital margin; mandibular sensory-canal absent; 4 to 6 dorsal fin rays (typically 5); 5 to 7 branchiostegal rays (typically 5 or 6)Chiloglanis
2b.
 Mandibular teeth spread across mouth opening in more than two discrete rows; eyes with free orbital margin; mandibular sensory canal present, with 2 pores on each side; 6 or 7 dorsal-fin rays; 7 or 8 branchiostegal rays...3

3a. 
Small anteriorly directed pocket underneath lower lip produced by folds of skin; width of mandibular tooth rows less than 66% width of paired premaxillae; caudal fin emarginate; gas bladder extremely reduced to two small bulbsAtopodontus
3b. 
Small anteriorly directed pocket underneath lower lip absent; width of mandibular tooth rows more than 66% width of paired premaxillae); caudal fin forked; gas bladder only modestly reduced...4
 

4a. Mandibular teeth spatulate and unicuspid; large posterior pectoral-spine serrae; one or only a few pores at sites along the cephalic sensory canals; fewer than 40 vertebraeAtopochilus
4b. Mandibular teeth with lengthwise keel creating trowel shape and sometimes bicuspid from wear; small posterior pectoral-spine serrae; several pores at various sites along the cephalic sensory canals; more than 40 vertebraeEuchilichthys

5a. S-shaped auxiliary dentary teeth present; premaxillary teeth differentiated by shape and size front to back; lips plicate (with folds at corners of mouth)...6
5b. S-shaped auxiliary dentary teeth absent); premaxillary teeth showing little, if any, differentiation from front to back; lips papillose, but not plicate (without folds)...7

6a. Eyes with free orbital margin; 17 principal caudal-fin rays (only 13 in Synodontis contracta); tail forked; 6 to 10 pectoral-fin rays (usually 8 or 9); lateral mandibular barbels with single, gracile branches at each point along length or doubly branchedSynodontis
6b. Eyes without free orbital margin; 12 to 14 principal caudal-fin rays; tail truncate or rounded; 6 or 7 pectoral- fin rays (typically 6); lateral mandibular barbels with single, gracile branches at each point along lengthMicrosynodontis

7a. Dorsal surface of the head and nuchal shield covered by large ridges and spinous projections; cleithrum bearing spine in males; rounded, blunt postcleithral process; anus and urogenital opening distant; free orbital margin present; gill openings open to isthmus; tips of mandibular teeth spatulate; medial mandibular barbels with multiple, thick branches at each point along length; 8 or 9 pectoral-fin rays; 17 caudal-fin rays; more than 40 vertebraeAcanthocliethron
7b. Dorsal surface of the head and nuchal shield without ridges and spinous projections; cleithrum without spine in males; pointed postcleithral process; anus and urogenital opening very close; free orbital margin absent; gill openings restricted to sides of the head; tips of mandibular teeth pointed; medial mandibular barbels with single, gracile branches at each point along length; 5 to 7 pectoral-fin rays; 13 to 15 caudal-fin rays; fewer than 36 vertebrae...8

8a. Adipose fin with rays; tips of pelvic fins not reaching origin of anal fin; opercle without obvious spine in males; 5 or 6 pectoral-fin rays; 2 mandibular sensory-canal pores on each sideMochokus
8b. Adipose fin without rays; tips of pelvic fins just reaching origin of anal fin; opercle bearing obvious spine in males; 7 pectoral-fin rays; 3 mandibular sensory-canal pores on each sideMochokiella

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Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith